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In its metallic state, iron is rare in the Earth's crust , limited mainly to deposition by meteorites.
Humans started to master that process in Eurasia only about BCE [ not verified in body ] , and the use of iron tools and weapons began to displace copper alloys , in some regions, only around BCE.
That event is considered the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. In the modern world , iron alloys, such as steel , inox , cast iron and special steels are by far the most common industrial metals, because of their mechanical properties and low cost.
Pristine and smooth pure iron surfaces are mirror-like silvery-gray. However, iron reacts readily with oxygen and water to give brown to black hydrated iron oxides , commonly known as rust.
Unlike the oxides of some other metals, that form passivating layers, rust occupies more volume than the metal and thus flakes off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion.
The body of an adult human contains about 4 grams 0. These two proteins play essential roles in vertebrate metabolism , respectively oxygen transport by blood and oxygen storage in muscles.
To maintain the necessary levels, human iron metabolism requires a minimum of iron in the diet. Iron is also the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals.
Iron shares many properties of other transition metals , including the other group 8 elements , ruthenium and osmium.
Iron also forms many coordination compounds ; some of them, such as ferrocene , ferrioxalate , and Prussian blue , have substantial industrial, medical, or research applications.
The first three forms are observed at ordinary pressures. The physical properties of iron at very high pressures and temperatures have also been studied extensively,   because of their relevance to theories about the cores of the Earth and other planets.
It is supposed to have an orthorhombic or a double hcp structure. The melting and boiling points of iron, along with its enthalpy of atomization , are lower than those of the earlier 3d elements from scandium to chromium , showing the lessened contribution of the 3d electrons to metallic bonding as they are attracted more and more into the inert core by the nucleus;  however, they are higher than the values for the previous element manganese because that element has a half-filled 3d subshell and consequently its d-electrons are not easily delocalized.
This same trend appears for ruthenium but not osmium. For greater pressures, published data as of still varies by tens of gigapascals and over a thousand kelvin.
Thus a macroscopic piece of iron will have a nearly zero overall magnetic field. Application of an external magnetic field causes the domains that are magnetized in the same general direction to grow at the expense of adjacent ones that point in other directions, reinforcing the external field.
This effect is exploited in devices that needs to channel magnetic fields, such as electrical transformers , magnetic recording heads, and electric motors.
Impurities, lattice defects , or grain and particle boundaries can "pin" the domains in the new positions, so that the effect persists even after the external field is removed -- thus turning the iron object into a permanent magnet.
Similar behavior is exhibited by some iron compounds, such as the ferrites and the mineral magnetite , a crystalline form of the mixed iron II,III oxide Fe 3 O 4 although the atomic-scale mechanism, ferrimagnetism , is somewhat different.
Pieces of magnetite with natural permanent magnetization lodestones provided the earliest compasses for navigation. Particles of magnetite were extensively used in magnetic recording media such as core memories , magnetic tapes , floppies , and disks , until they were replaced by cobalt -based materials.
Iron has four stable isotopes : 54 Fe 5. The nuclide 54 Fe theoretically can undergo double electron capture to 54 Cr, but the process has never been observed and only a lower limit on the half-life of 3.
In the last decade, advances in mass spectrometry have allowed the detection and quantification of minute, naturally occurring variations in the ratios of the stable isotopes of iron.
Much of this work is driven by the Earth and planetary science communities, although applications to biological and industrial systems are emerging.
In phases of the meteorites Semarkona and Chervony Kut, a correlation between the concentration of 60 Ni, the granddaughter of 60 Fe, and the abundance of the stable iron isotopes provided evidence for the existence of 60 Fe at the time of formation of the Solar System.
Possibly the energy released by the decay of 60 Fe, along with that released by 26 Al , contributed to the remelting and differentiation of asteroids after their formation 4.
The abundance of 60 Ni present in extraterrestrial material may bring further insight into the origin and early history of the Solar System.
The most abundant iron isotope 56 Fe is of particular interest to nuclear scientists because it represents the most common endpoint of nucleosynthesis.
As such, iron is the most abundant element in the core of red giants , and is the most abundant metal in iron meteorites and in the dense metal cores of planets such as Earth.
Although a further tiny energy gain could be extracted by synthesizing 62 Ni , which has a marginally higher binding energy than 56 Fe, conditions in stars are unsuitable for this process.
Element production in supernovas and distribution on Earth greatly favor iron over nickel, and in any case, 56 Fe still has a lower mass per nucleon than 62 Ni due to its higher fraction of lighter protons.
In the far future of the universe, assuming that proton decay does not occur, cold fusion occurring via quantum tunnelling would cause the light nuclei in ordinary matter to fuse into 56 Fe nuclei.
Fission and alpha-particle emission would then make heavy nuclei decay into iron, converting all stellar-mass objects to cold spheres of pure iron.
Iron's abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars , where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova , which scatters the iron into space.
Metallic or native iron is rarely found on the surface of the Earth because it tends to oxidize. Electric currents in the liquid outer core are believed to be the origin of the Earth's magnetic field.
The other terrestrial planets Mercury , Venus , and Mars as well as the Moon are believed to have a metallic core consisting mostly of iron.
The M-type asteroids are also believed to be partly or mostly made of metallic iron alloy. The rare iron meteorites are the main form of natural metallic iron on the Earth's surface.
Items made of cold-worked meteoritic iron have been found in various archaeological sites dating from a time when iron smelting had not yet been developed; and the Inuit in Greenland have been reported to use iron from the Cape York meteorite for tools and hunting weapons.
In the literature, this mineral phase of the lower mantle is also often called magnesiowüstite. Most of the iron in the crust is combined with various other elements to form many iron minerals.
An important class is the iron oxide minerals such as hematite Fe 2 O 3 , magnetite Fe 3 O 4 , and siderite FeCO 3 , which are the major ores of iron.
Many igneous rocks also contain the sulfide minerals pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Both of these are oxidized in aqueous solution and precipitate in even mildly elevated pH as iron III oxide.
Large deposits of iron are banded iron formations , a type of rock consisting of repeated thin layers of iron oxides alternating with bands of iron-poor shale and chert.
Materials containing finely ground iron III oxides or oxide-hydroxides, such as ochre , have been used as yellow, red, and brown pigments since pre-historical times.
They contribute as well to the color of various rocks and clays , including entire geological formations like the Painted Hills in Oregon and the Buntsandstein "colored sandstone", British Bunter.
Significant amounts of iron occur in the iron sulfide mineral pyrite FeS 2 , but it is difficult to extract iron from it and it is therefore not exploited.
In fact, iron is so common that production generally focuses only on ores with very high quantities of it.
Iron shows the characteristic chemical properties of the transition metals , namely the ability to form variable oxidation states differing by steps of one and a very large coordination and organometallic chemistry: indeed, it was the discovery of an iron compound, ferrocene , that revolutionalized the latter field in the s.
Iron also occurs in higher oxidation states , e. The oxidation states and other bonding properties are often assessed using the technique of Mössbauer spectroscopy.
As such, iron, cobalt, and nickel are sometimes grouped together as the iron triad. Unlike many other metals, iron does not form amalgams with mercury.
However, it does not react with concentrated nitric acid and other oxidizing acids due to the formation of an impervious oxide layer, which can nevertheless react with hydrochloric acid.
Iron II oxide also exists, though it is unstable at room temperature. Despite their names, they are actually all non-stoichiometric compounds whose compositions may vary.
They are also used in the production of ferrites , useful magnetic storage media in computers, and pigments. The best known sulfide is iron pyrite FeS 2 , also known as fool's gold owing to its golden luster.
The binary ferrous and ferric halides are well-known. The ferrous halides typically arise from treating iron metal with the corresponding hydrohalic acid to give the corresponding hydrated salts.
Iron reacts with fluorine, chlorine, and bromine to give the corresponding ferric halides, ferric chloride being the most common.
The standard reduction potentials in acidic aqueous solution for some common iron ions are given below: . The red-purple tetrahedral ferrate VI anion is such a strong oxidizing agent that it oxidizes nitrogen and ammonia at room temperature, and even water itself in acidic or neutral solutions: .
As pH rises above 0 the above yellow hydrolyzed species form and as it rises above 2—3, reddish-brown hydrous iron III oxide precipitates out of solution.
Thus, all the above complexes are rather strongly colored, with the single exception of the hexaquo ion — and even that has a spectrum dominated by charge transfer in the near ultraviolet region.
Carbon dioxide is not evolved when carbonate anions are added, which instead results in white iron II carbonate being precipitated out. In excess carbon dioxide this forms the slightly soluble bicarbonate, which occurs commonly in groundwater, but it oxidises quickly in air to form iron III oxide that accounts for the brown deposits present in a sizeable number of streams.
Due to its electronic structure, iron has a very large coordination and organometallic chemistry. Many coordination compounds of iron are known.
For example, the trans - chlorohydridobis bis-1,2- diphenylphosphino ethane iron II complex is used as a starting material for compounds with the Fe dppe 2 moiety.
The dihydrate of iron II oxalate has a polymeric structure with co-planar oxalate ions bridging between iron centres with the water of crystallisation located forming the caps of each octahedron, as illustrated below.
The latter tend to be rather more unstable than iron II complexes and often dissociate in water. Many Fe—O complexes show intense colors and are used as tests for phenols or enols.
For example, in the ferric chloride test , used to determine the presence of phenols, iron III chloride reacts with a phenol to form a deep violet complex: .
Like manganese II , most iron III complexes are high-spin, the exceptions being those with ligands that are high in the spectrochemical series such as cyanide.
This value is always half the number of unpaired electrons. Complexes with zero to two unpaired electrons are considered low-spin and those with four or five are considered high-spin.
They have a tendency to be oxidized to iron III but this can be moderated by low pH and the specific ligands used. Organoiron chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds of iron, where carbon atoms are covalently bound to the metal atom.
They are many and varied, including cyanide complexes , carbonyl complexes , sandwich and half-sandwich compounds. Prussian blue or "ferric ferrocyanide", Fe 4 [Fe CN 6 ] 3 , is an old and well-known iron-cyanide complex, extensively used as pigment and in several other applications.
Another old example of organoiron compound is iron pentacarbonyl , Fe CO 5 , in which a neutral iron atom is bound to the carbon atoms of five carbon monoxide molecules.
The compound can be used to make carbonyl iron powder, a highly reactive form of metallic iron. Thermolysis of iron pentacarbonyl gives triiron dodecacarbonyl , Fe 3 CO 12 , a with a cluster of three iron atoms at its core.
A landmark in this field was the discovery in of the remarkably stable sandwich compound ferrocene Fe C 5 H 5 2 , by] Paulson and Kealy  and independently by Miller and others,  whose surprising molecular structure was determined only a year later by Woodward and Wilkinson  and Fischer.
Iron-centered organometallic species are used as catalysts. The Knölker complex , for example, is a transfer hydrogenation catalyst for ketones.
As iron has been in use for such a long time, it has many names. The source of its chemical symbol Fe is the Latin word ferrum , and its descendants are the names of the element in the Romance languages for example, French fer , Spanish hierro , and Italian and Portuguese ferro.
Iron is one of the elements undoubtedly known to the ancient world. However, iron objects of great age are much rarer than objects made of gold or silver due to the ease with which iron corrodes.
Meteoric iron was highly regarded due to its origin in the heavens and was often used to forge weapons and tools.
Meteoritic iron is comparably soft and ductile and easily cold forged but may get brittle when heated because of the nickel content. The first iron production started in the Middle Bronze Age , but it took several centuries before iron displaced bronze.
They appear to be the first to understand the production of iron from its ores and regard it highly in their society. Some archaeological evidence suggests iron was smelted in Zimbabwe and southeast Africa as early as the eighth century BC.
The spread of ironworking in Central and Western Europe is associated with Celtic expansion. According to Pliny the Elder , iron use was common in the Roman era.
During the Industrial Revolution in Britain, Henry Cort began refining iron from pig iron to wrought iron or bar iron using innovative production systems.
In he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore. It was later improved by others, including Joseph Hall. Cast iron was first produced in China during 5th century BC,  but was hardly in Europe until the medieval period.
Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare, agriculture, and architecture. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel.
Medieval blast furnaces were about 10 feet 3. In , Abraham Darby I established a coke -fired blast furnace to produce cast iron, replacing charcoal, although continuing to use blast furnaces.
The ensuing availability of inexpensive iron was one of the factors leading to the Industrial Revolution. Toward the end of the 18th century, cast iron began to replace wrought iron for certain purposes, because it was cheaper.
Carbon content in iron was not implicated as the reason for the differences in properties of wrought iron, cast iron, and steel until the 18th century.
Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative first iron bridge in This bridge still stands today as a monument to the role iron played in the Industrial Revolution.
Following this, iron was used in rails, boats, ships, aqueducts, and buildings, as well as in iron cylinders in steam engines. French, Spanish, Italian and German refer to railways as iron road.
Steel with smaller carbon content than pig iron but more than wrought iron was first produced in antiquity by using a bloomery. These methods were specialized, and so steel did not become a major commodity until the s.
New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century. In the Industrial Revolution , new methods of producing bar iron without charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel.
In the late s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, involving blowing air through molten pig iron, to produce mild steel. This made steel much more economical, thereby leading to wrought iron no longer being produced in large quantities.
In , Antoine Lavoisier used the reaction of water steam with metallic iron inside an incandescent iron tube to produce hydrogen in his experiments leading to the demonstration of the conservation of mass , which was instrumental in changing chemistry from a qualitative science to a quantitative one.
Iron plays a certain role in mythology and has found various usage as a metaphor and in folklore. The Greek poet Hesiod 's Works and Days lines — lists different ages of man named after metals like gold, silver, bronze and iron to account for successive ages of humanity.
The Virtues, in despair, quit the earth; and the depravity of man becomes universal and complete. Hard steel succeeded then. An example of the importance of iron's symbolic role may be found in the German Campaign of Berlin iron jewellery reached its peak production between and , when the Prussian royal family urged citizens to donate gold and silver jewellery for military funding.
The inscription Gold gab ich für Eisen I gave gold for iron was used as well in later war efforts. Nowadays, the industrial production of iron or steel consists of two main stages.
In the first stage, iron ore is reduced with coke in a blast furnace , and the molten metal is separated from gross impurities such as silicate minerals.
This stage yields an alloy -- pig iron —that contains relatively large amounts of carbon. In the second stage, the amount of carbon in the pig iron is lowered by oxidation to yield wrought iron, steel, or cast iron.
The blast furnace is loaded with iron ores, usually hematite Fe 2 O 3 or magnetite Fe 3 O 4 , together with coke coal that has been separately baked to remove volatile components.
Some iron in the high-temperature lower region of the furnace reacts directly with the coke: . A flux such as limestone calcium carbonate or dolomite calcium-magnesium carbonate is also added to the furnace's load.
Its purpose is to remove silicaceous minerals in the ore, which would otherwise clog the furnace. The heat of the furnace decomposes the carbonates to calcium oxide , which reacts with any excess silica to form a slag composed of calcium silicate CaSiO 3 or other products.
At the furnace's temperature, the metal and the slag are both molten. They collect at the bottom as two immiscible liquid layers with the slag on top , that are then easily separated.
The high level of carbon makes it relatively weak and brittle. Reducing the amount of carbon to 0. A great variety of steel articles can then be made by cold working , hot rolling , forging , machining , etc.
Removing the other impurities, instead, results in cast iron, which is used to cast articles in foundries ; for example stoves, pipes, radiators, lamp-posts, and rails.
Steel products often undergo various heat treatments after they are forged to shape. It makes the steel softer and more workable.
Owing to environmental concerns, alternative methods of processing iron have been developed. Natural gas is partially oxidized with heat and a catalyst : .
Iron ore is then treated with these gases in a furnace, producing solid sponge iron: . Silica is removed by adding a limestone flux as described above.
Ignition of a mixture of aluminium powder and iron oxide yields metallic iron via the thermite reaction :. Various processes have been used for this, including finery forges , puddling furnaces, Bessemer converters , open hearth furnaces , basic oxygen furnaces , and electric arc furnaces.
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